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According to Vodouists, Bondye does not intercede in human affairs, religious practices of contemporary Vodou are descended from, and closely related to, West African Vodun as practiced by the Fon and Ewe. In Haiti, whereas a small number of Roman Catholics combine their faith with aspects of Vodou.

Vodou is a Haitian Creole word that referred to only a small subset of Haitian rituals.

Two of the major speaking populations of Ayizo are the Ewe and these two peoples composed a sizable number of the early enslaved population in St Dominique. These terms also refer to the religion as a whole, outside of Haiti, the term Vodou refers to the entirety of traditional Haitian religious practice.

Originally written as vodun, it is first recorded in Doctrina Christiana, in the following centuries, Vodou was eventually taken up by non-Haitians as a generic descriptive term for traditional Haitian religion. There are many used orthographies for this word, today, the spelling Vodou is the most commonly accepted orthography in English. The spelling voodoo, once common, is now generally avoided by Haitian practitioners and scholars when referring to the Haitian religion.

Vodou is popularly described as not simply a religion, but rather an experience that ties body, the concept of tying that exists in Haitian religious culture is derived from the Congolese tradition of kanga, the practice of tying ones soul to something tangible.

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Saisons sauvages (LITTER GENERALE) (French Edition)

Each of the loa is associated with a particular Roman Catholic saint, for example, Legba is associated with St. Anthony the Hermit, and Damballa is associated with St. The loa also fall into groups who share a surname, such as Ogou, Ezili. For instance, Ezili is a family, Ezili Danto and Ezili Freda are two individual spirits in that family, vodous moral code focuses on the vices of dishonor and greed.

There is also a notion of relative propriety—and what is appropriate to someone with Dambala Wedo as their head may be different from someone with Ogou Feray as their head, for example, one spirit is very cool and the other is very hot. The earthquake occurred at 16,53 local time on Tuesday,12 January , by 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4. An estimated three million people were affected by the quake, the government of Haiti estimated that , residences and 30, commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged.


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The earthquake caused damage in Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other cities in the region. Notable landmark buildings were damaged or destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral. Many countries responded to appeals for aid, pledging funds and dispatching rescue and medical teams, engineers. Port-au-Princes morgues were overwhelmed with tens of thousands of bodies and these had to be buried in mass graves.

As rescues tailed off, supplies, medical care and sanitation became priorities, delays in aid distribution led to angry appeals from aid workers and survivors, and looting and sporadic violence were observed. The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, is active and has a history of destructive earthquakes. Haiti is no stranger to natural disasters, in addition to earthquakes, it has been struck frequently by tropical cyclones, which have caused flooding and widespread damage.

The most recent cyclones to hit the island before the earthquake were Tropical Storm Fay and Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike, all in the summer of , strong shaking associated with intensity IX on the Modified Mercalli scale was recorded in Port-au-Prince and its suburbs.

PDF Saisons sauvages (LITTER GENERALE) (French Edition)

It was also felt in several surrounding countries and regions, including Cuba, Jamaica, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, shaking damage was more severe than for other quakes of similar magnitude due to the shallow depth of the quake. The quake occurred in the vicinity of the boundary where the Caribbean tectonic plate shifts eastwards by about 20 mm per year in relation to the North American plate. The rupture was roughly 65 km long with mean slip of 1.

A earthquake hazard study by C, an article published in Haitis Le Matin newspaper in September cited comments by geologist Patrick Charles to the effect that there was a high risk of major seismic activity in Port-au-Prince. It receives a subsidy from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Recipients are mainly located in Africa, Asia, Latin America, nominations Honorees are determined by a jury of experts from fields relevant to its mission of culture and development.

Criteria The most important consideration of the jury is the effect of a laureates work on a wider cultural or social field.

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The Prince Claus Fund interprets culture in a sense to encompass all kinds of artistic and intellectual disciplines, science, media. Outstanding quality is a condition for an award.

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Theme The winners of the awards embody the policy aims of the Prince Claus Fund, Exceptional work in the field of culture and development in Asia, Latin America and notably in Africa. Brussels — Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium.

The region has a population of 1. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are also located in Brussels. Today, it is considered an Alpha global city, historically a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. Spain discovered the island on 5 December during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic, when Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia.

Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the portion of the island being ceded to France. The development of plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America, genetic studies show they were related to the Yanomami of the Amazon Basin. These have become symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions.

Novelist — A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, and frequently this shapes the content of their works. Similarly, some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, while many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires, novelists and commentators often ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers.

Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality truthfully. Novelist is a derivative from the term novel describing the writer of novels.


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The difference between professional and amateur novelists often is the ability to publish. Many people take up writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they often try to get it published. The publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers, self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer.

The rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive, Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity. Some communities actively encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, for example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50, word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works.

In the event, over , people took part — writing a total of over 2. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age, for example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, and at sixteen completed his first novel, The Hungarian Lift-Jet, about international arms dealers, in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book. However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist.

Occasionally, novelists publish as early as their teens, for example, Patrick OBrian published his first novel, Caesar, The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Occasionally, these works will achieve popular success as well, for example, though Christopher Paolinis Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Childrens Books Best Seller list for weeks. First-time novelists of any age often find themselves unable to get published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author.

Port-au-Prince — Port-au-Prince is the capital and most populous city of Haiti. The citys population was estimated at , in with the area estimated at a population of 2,, The citys layout is similar to that of an amphitheatre, commercial districts are near the water, the city was catastrophically affected by a devastating earthquake in , with large numbers of structures damaged or destroyed.

Haitis government estimated the toll to be , He, like his predecessors, feared settling too close to the coast, such settlements would have proven to be tempting targets for the Caribes, instead, the region served as a hunting ground. He invited her and other leaders to a feast.

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Anacaona was spared, only to be hanged publicly some time later, through violence and murders, the Spanish settlers decimated the native population. Not long thereafter, Ovando founded Santa Maria del Puerto, the latter was first burned by French explorers in , then again in by the English.

Classics — Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Graeco-Roman world, particularly of its languages, and literature but also it encompasses the study of Graeco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and it has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education.

The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning belonging to the highest class of citizens, the word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality, for example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts classicus and proletarius writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a meaning, referring to pupils at a school. Thus the two meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum.

In the Middle Ages, classics and education were tightly intertwined, according to Jan Ziolkowski, while Latin was hugely influential, however, Greek was barely studied, and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. The works of even major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages.

Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.